Instrument: Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND)


The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence is a standard instrument for assessing the intensity of physical addiction to nicotine. The test was designed to provide an ordinal measure of nicotine dependence related to cigarette smoking. It contains six items that evaluate the quantity of cigarette consumption, the compulsion to use, and dependence.

In scoring the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence, yes/no items are scored from 0 to 1 and multiple-choice items are scored from 0 to 3. The items are summed to yield a total score of 0-10. The higher the total Fagerström score, the more intense is the patient's physical dependence on nicotine.

In the clinic, the Fagerström test may be used by the physician to document indications for prescribing medication for nicotine withdrawal.

The Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire was developed by Karl-Olov Fagerström. This instrument was modified to the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence by Todd Heatherton, et al. in 1991. The FTND is copyrighted by Taylor and Francis Ltd., but may be reproduced without permission, as available from the source reference (Heatherton, et al., 1991).

Instrument Usage: 
Clinical Research

Heatherton TF, Kozlowski LT, Frecker RC, Fagerstrom KO (1991). The Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence: a revision of the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire. Br J Addict 86:1119-27.

Pomerleau C S, Majchrezak MI, Pomerleau OF (1989). Nicotine dependence and the Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire: a brief review. J Substance Abuse 1: 471-7.

Sample Form: 
PDF icon FagerstromTest_2014Mar24.pdf31.39 KB
ModuleModule ID
Smoking Status4281011
Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence- NIDA3696754
Fagerstrom Score4281067